Two of the works cited in this section are dictionaries rather than Genji commentaries -- this is the 雅語訳解 of Suzuki Akira, and the 雅言集覧 of Ishikawa Masamochi.
As this section deals with definitions and etymologies of classical Japanese words, there's a limit to what I can do with the translation -- these sections will be the least comprehensible to someone without a grounding in Japanese.
In the oldest language the word was samorahi. This is a lengthening of moru to morahi, with the sa just serving as a prefix. In the vernacular it means shikou suru ("serve"). [It refers to] looking after the wellbeing of a high-ranking person. This eventually became just a form of polite language. Here, it means that many Consorts and Intimates are serving the Emperor.
I believe the "form of polite language" is 候 (sourou).
These two words both emphasize an extreme state. ito is somewhat softer, and corresponds to the vernacular zutto. itaku has the meaning of "painful," and is much stronger. It corresponds to vernacular hidoku.
Tama no Ogushi (1796): This word originally meant that something was hard to ignore, or hard to put aside, thus "does not stop". The meaning in this sentence developed from high-ranking people being hard to ignore.
kakubetsu na (各別な)
Genchu shui (1698): In the travel volume of the Gosenshu [poem 1354] the prose preface says:
Nakahara no Muneki was on his way to Mino province, and he stayed at a woman's house along the road. He was drawn to her and found it difficult to leave, but after two or three days, he left on business he could not ignore, so he gathered up his clothing and sent her a poem written on it.This use of yamu koto naki means business he cannot ignore or put aside.
訳 ヨンドコロナイ モダシガタナイ
yondokoro nai (拠無い), modashi gata nai (黙し方ない)
This matches the word bunzai. In current vernacular we would say bungen. It means "limit". The word kiwami has the same idea behind it.
This is an adjective, and comes from a shortening of mieku. So it refers to what something appears to be like -- this will work for any term.
This means to thrive at the appropriate time. meku is the usual adjective coming from the shortening of mieku.