Tuesday, December 11, 2012
Hyoshaku, "Kiritsubo" 1.1
I attached a photo of the typeset version to the right. As you can see, Hagiwara has added punctuation (only the 。 though. He does not use separate punctuation for the end of a sentence) and 濁点 (voicing marks). In addition, the notes to the left of the text provide glosses. Some of them are just kanji, but most of them are glosses in the contemporary 19th-century vernacular, which turns out to be surprisingly close to modern Japanese. So きは is 分際, いと is ずっと, and 時めき is 出頭する.
The text under the triangles represents what Hagiwara considers to be "understood" parts of the text that are omitted. So 御時 is 帝の御時, and you should imagine ありけん after にか.
Finally, the open circle to the right of やんことなき represents Hagiwara's emphasizing that こと should be read unvoiced (that is, not as ごとなき). He says in his intro that he does this for words that are pronounced in the contemporary vernacular as voiced. As far as I know, modern editions say you should voice this word, though.
(Incidentally I see that he dodged the issue of how to read 御, which is a problem as old as Genji commentary that is still unsolved today.)
Here's my super-literal translation of this first sentence:
"In some reign, among the many Consorts and Intimates who served, there was one who was not in the very highest rank, and who thrived exceedingly."
Now above the text (sometimes spilling onto the next page), Hagiwara has a selection of the notes that he thinks are the most important and clearest to understand the text. The first sentence has four notes.
Tama no Ogushi (1796): This story is all a constructed tale, like what is known today as "stories of old". Because of this, it says "Long ago, in some reign, these things happened," and these words apply to the whole tale (etc.)
The "etc" at the end is because Hagiwara cuts out the last part in which Norinaga criticizes some old theories; Hagiwara tends to omit these sections of the other commentaries when he quotes them.
Rokasho (1504): "Consort" is a female office that follows the Empress. The "Intimates" are next after the Consorts.
Shaku: According to a certain theory, in order to make Genji as good as possible, his mother should be the daughter of a Minister or other high-ranking official, but the author instead says "not of the very highest rank" to cause a feeling of pity in the readers. Later when it says that the Emperor lavished his private affections on Genji [rather than his public support], this is the same meaning. This theory is sound.
This is a pretty loose translation; I don't fully understand the passage. I'm also not sure whose theory this is.
Hyou: The author does not write "...there was an Intimate who thrived," but only reveals it later when she writes “the lower Intimates.” This is excellent writing, and shows up many times later. You should pay careful attention to it.
Next up will be the 語釈, Hagiwara's extended definitions of particular words.